Previously, it was a conflict among scientists to know the cause and identification of the infected ovarian cells with high-grade cancer. Unfortunately, this condition is life-threatening in women of all ages. But according to the latest research, it is clear that ovarian cancers arise either from the cells that line outside of ovaries or from the cells present on the fallopian tube surface. The rate of growth of the tumor that formed in the ovaries and the rate of response to therapies usually influenced by the “cell of origin.”
At NYU Langone Health Researcher from the Perlmutter Cancer Center put substantial efforts in finding the real origin and cause of this cancer. This report was published online on Nov 26, 2019, in “Nature Communication” at BROOKLYN.
According to the Shuang Zhang, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow and first author of the study at Perlmutter Cancer Center, if we gain the better understanding of the origin, it will provide us a new vision about the disease in biology and also give some ways to find out the therapies related to ovarian cancer.
Genetically engineered mice were used to study ovarian cancer. Researchers disclosed that in mice the fallopian tube or cells on the ovarian surface contains the same type of cancer-causing genetic material that causes mutations and lead to cancer. This was confirmed by the organoids a 3D cultural of cells taken from the mice that allowed to grow artificially.
It was found by the author that tumors may form from both types of cells. the tumors that originate from the fallopian tube have the capacity to spread more rapidly in the abdomen on the other side tumors derived from the ovarian surface cells are benign in nature and become the large collections of cells at the parent site. The tumors that derived from the fallopian tube are more sensitive to cis-platinum. It is the type of chemotherapy used against ovarian cancer.
Normal cells that undergo any genetic change give rise to the cancer cells. In the same way, the Researcher showed that there were different sets of genes expressed in mice who had developed fallopian tubes and ovarian surface derived tumors.
By keeping in mind, the same concept researchers used these genetic changes as a “signature” to track the tumors in the human who suffers from this type of cancers. They compared the ovarian cancerous cells to the normal cells and to each other. After this, it was confirmed that some of the tumors are more likely to originate from the fallopian tube and some are ovarian derived surface tumors.
According to the director of the Perlmutter Cancer Center and the first study author, Benjamin Neel the outcomes of the study show that more than one type of cell involves in high-grade cancer. the behavior and nature of the tumor may get influenced by the original cells, which ultimately produces a strong effect on the therapy response. It is necessary for the physician to diagnose the accurate origin of cells that undergo genetic change and then apply any therapy according to that origin.
There are many other authors from Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center who worked hard in finding the results including; Igor Dolgalev, Hao Ran, Tao Zhang, and Douglas Levine.
Following are the organizations and institutes that provided funds for the study.
- National Cancer Institute Center Core Grant
- Canadian Institutes of Health Grant
- Department of Defense Ovarian Cancer Research Program
- Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance